The Temple of Solomon was said to stand on the exact same mount where Abraham, the forefather of the Jewish people was about to sacrifice his son Isaac to G-d. Only Jews from the tribe of Levite were allowed to be priests at the Temple and perform normal Temple duties. The Ark of the Covenant, which was made by the Israelites and Moses in the desert years earlier, was placed in the Temple's Holy of Holies.
In 586 BCE, at a time when, according to the Tanakh, the Jewish people started to turn away from G-d, worshiped idols and performed witchcraft, the Babylonians invaded, destroyed the Temple of Solomon and exiled the Jews to Babylon.
When Jews did return many years later, they rebuilt the Temple and it became known as the Second Temple. Many years later, King Herod refurbished it on a much grander scale.